rutile, 95% titanium dioxide, at plant


Included Processes are screening, concentration and separation of heavy minerals. In this process step the minerals ilmenite, rutile and zircon are separated. Large uncertainties exist for data on particle emissions and emissions to water due to high variability and missing data of uncontrolled run off. Energy carriers may vary considerably for different mining sites.


number 6948
timestamp 2010-06-16T17:36:34
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unit kg
amount 1
includedProcesses The process includes material and energy input, emissions and land use for the mining of mineral sands. The multi output-process "zircon production from mineral sands" delivers the co-products "zircon, 50% zirconium, at plant", "rutile, 95% titanium dioxide, at plant" and "ilmenite, 54% titanium dioxide, at plant". The revenue is used as allocation scheme. The allocation factors are determined according to the average bulk prices for rutile, ilmenite and zircon of between 2000 and 2005.
infrastructureIncluded true
datasetRelatesToProduct true


location AU
text Production in Australia considered. Various processes with location RER used.


Mining process for ilmenite, rutile and zircon from mineral sands used in Australian operations. Average of wet and dry mining techniques from five different mines. No specific technology modelled.


startYear 2000
endYear 2005


timestamp 2007-08-13T18:17:47
version 2.2