IPCC methodology for sinter production - tiers 2/3



This methodology represents carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions associated with the production of sinter. The data and calculation methodology is sourced from the Greenhouse Gas Protocol (GHGP) worksheet tool CO2 emissions from the production of iron and steel, version 2.0, which is ultimately based on the methodologies described in Volume 3, Chapter 4 - Metal Industry Emissions of their 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories.

The methodology

Emissions model

Sinter is an agglomeration of iron ore and other iron-containing minerals, and is used as a blast furnace feedstock in the production of iron and steel. The process of sintering may consume carbon-bearing feedstock, thus producing emissions of CO2 and CH4 as well as by-product gases ('sinter off gas').

This methodology enables the calculation of sinter-associated CO2 emissions based upon a mass balance approach that accounts for the carbon inputs and outputs to coke ovens. By considering the carbon entering the process via the carbon-bearing feedstocks (typically coke breeze and other materials), and the carbon leaving the process within sinter off gases, the discrepancy can be assumed to have been emitted as CO2.

CH4 emissions are based on an emissions factor which describes the rate at which CH4 is emitted per unit quantity of sinter produced.

This methodology represents the IPCC Tier 2 approach where default carbon content data is used for carbon-bearing feedstocks and products, but Tier 3 where these are based on facility-specfic data.

Model data

This methodology is based on a mass-balance of process inputs and outputs, and depends upon quantities and carbon concentrations for each. Default carbon content data is provided for a selection of 21 carbon-bearing feedstocks for cases where facility-specific data is not available.

Activity data required

CO2 emissions require the quantity of feedstock in order to calculate. In addition, the methodology enables the specification of facility-specific data carbon content data where this is available. CH4 emissions also require the quantity of sinter produced to be specified. A default emissions factor for CH4 is available but can be specified if facility- or country-specific data is available.

Calculation and results

CO2 emissions are calculated by the mass-balance of the specified input/output activity data. CH4 emissions are calculated by multiplying the quantity of sinter specified by the appropriate emissions factor. CO2e emissions are also calculated by converting absolute emissions using the appropriate global warming potentials.

Related methodologies

If feedstock and by-product data is unavailable, a simpler methodology based solely on quantities of sinter produced is also available.

IPCC methodologies for other iron and steel-associated process emissions are also available, including tier 1 and tier 2/3 methodologies for iron and steel production, direct reduced iron and coke production.

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